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Table_5_Integrated Whole-Transcriptome Profiling and Bioinformatics Analysis of the Polypharmacological Effects of Ganoderic Acid Me in Colorectal Cancer Treatment.xls
Ganoderic acid Me (GA-Me) is a natural bioactive compound derived from Ganoderma lucidum. Our present results suggested that GA-Me inhibited proliferation, induced DNA fragmentation and significantly activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 in HCT116 cells. As shown in our previous studies, GA-Me targets several genes to prevent cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, we hypothesized that GA-Me might be a multitarget ligand against cancer. However, its exact mechanism in CRC remains unclear. Here, whole-transcriptome sequencing was employed to assess the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), circular RNA (circRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles of GA-Me-treated HCT116 cells. In total, 1572 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs, 123 DEcircRNAs, 87 DEmiRNAs, and 1508 DEmRNAs were identified. DCBLD2 and RAPGEF5 were validated as two core mRNAs in the DElncRNA, DEcircRNA, and DEmiRNA networks. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed the biological functions and potential mechanisms of TCONS-00008997, XR-925056.2, circRNA-07908, hsa-miR-100-3p, hsa-miR-1257, hsa-miR-3182, NAV3, ADAM20, and STARD4, which were altered after GA-Me treatment. The regulatory relationships of the XR-925056.2-hsa-miR-3182-NAV3/ADAM20/STARD4, circRNA-07908|Chr22:38986298-39025349-hsa-miR-3182-NAV3/ADAM20, ENST00000414039/ENST00000419190-novel874_mature-MMP9 and circRNA-00314|Chr1:35470863-35479212/circRNA-05460|Chr17:72592203-72649268-novel874_mature-MMP9 immune-regulatory networks involved both noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and mRNAs. Molecular docking studies showed that Zn2+ and the His201, His205, His211, Glu202, and Ala165 residues of MMP2 contributed to its high affinity for GA-Me. Zn2+ and the Glu402 and Gly186 residues of MMP9 are important for its interaction with GA-Me. Our results suggested and confirmed that GA-Me is a potential multitarget lead compound for CRC treatment with unique polypharmacological advantages.