Table_5_Immunization With the CSF-470 Vaccine Plus BCG and rhGM-CSF Induced in a Cutaneous Melanoma Patient a TCRβ Repertoire Found at Vaccination Sit.XLSX (303.37 kB)

Table_5_Immunization With the CSF-470 Vaccine Plus BCG and rhGM-CSF Induced in a Cutaneous Melanoma Patient a TCRβ Repertoire Found at Vaccination Site and Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes That Persisted in Blood.XLSX

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posted on 18.09.2019 by Mariana Aris, Alicia Inés Bravo, Heli Magalí Garcia Alvarez, Ibel Carri, Enrique Podaza, Paula Alejandra Blanco, Cecilia Rotondaro, Sofia Bentivegna, Morten Nielsen, María Marcela Barrio, José Mordoh

The CSF-470 cellular vaccine plus BCG and rhGM-CSF increased distant metastases-free survival in cutaneous melanoma patients stages IIB-IIC-III relative to medium dose IFN-α2b (CASVAC-0401 study). Patient-045 developed a mature vaccination site (VAC-SITE) and a regional cutaneous metastasis (C-MTS), which were excised during the protocol, remaining disease-free 36 months from vaccination start. CDR3-TCRβ repertoire sequencing in PBMC and tissue samples, along with skin-DTH score and IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, were performed to analyze the T-cell immune response dynamics throughout the immunization protocol. Histopathological analysis of the VAC-SITE revealed a highly-inflamed granulomatous structure encircled by CD11c+ nested-clusters, brisk CD8+ and scarce FOXP3+, lymphocytes with numerous Langhans multinucleated-giant-cells and macrophages. A large tumor-regression area fulfilled the C-MTS with brisk lymphocyte infiltration, mainly composed of CD8+PD1+ T-cells, CD20+ B-cells, and scarce FOXP3+ cells. Increasing DTH score and IFN-γ ELISPOT assay signal against the CSF-470 vaccine-lysate was evidenced throughout immunization. TCRβ repertoire analysis revealed for the first time the presence of common clonotypes between a VAC-SITE and a C-MTS; most of them persisted in blood by the end of the immunization protocol. In vitro boost with vaccine-lysate revealed the expansion of persistent clones that infiltrated the VAC-SITE and/or the C-MTS; other persistent clones expanded in the patient's blood as well. We propose that expansion of such persistent clonotypes might derive from two different although complementary mechanisms: the proliferation of specific clones as well as the expansion of redundant clones, which increased the number of nucleotide rearrangements per clonotype, suggesting a functional antigenic selection. In this patient, immunization with the CSF-470 vaccine plus BCG and rhGM-CSF induced a T-cell repertoire at the VAC-SITE that was able to infiltrate an emerging C-MTS, which resulted in the expansion of a T-cell repertoire that persisted in blood by the end of the 2-year treatment.

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