Table_5_Identification of Auxiliary Biomarkers and Description of the Immune Microenvironmental Characteristics in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy by Bioi.XLSX (5.25 MB)
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Table_5_Identification of Auxiliary Biomarkers and Description of the Immune Microenvironmental Characteristics in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy by Bioinformatical Analysis and Experiment.XLSX

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posted on 03.06.2022, 05:10 authored by Xu Han, Jingzhe Han, Ning Wang, Guang Ji, Ruoyi Guo, Jing Li, Hongran Wu, Shaojuan Ma, Pingping Fang, Xueqin Song
Background

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic muscle disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting associated with persistent inflammation. In this study, we aimed to identify auxiliary biomarkers and further characterize the immune microenvironment in DMD.

Methods

Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between DMD and normal muscle tissues based on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. Bioinformatical analysis was used to screen and identify potential diagnostic signatures of DMD which were further validated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). We also performed single-sample gene-set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) to characterize the proportion of tissue-infiltrating immune cells to determine the inflammatory state of DMD.

Results

In total, 182 downregulated genes and 263 upregulated genes were identified in DMD. C3, SPP1, TMSB10, TYROBP were regarded as adjunct biomarkers and successfully validated by RT-qPCR. The infiltration of macrophages, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in DMD compared with normal muscle tissues, while the infiltration of activated B cells, CD56dim natural killer cells, and type 17 T helper (Th17) cells was lower. In addition, the four biomarkers (C3, SPP1, TMSB10, TYROBP) were strongly associated with immune cells and immune-related pathways in DMD muscle tissues.

Conclusion

Analyses demonstrated C3, SPP1, TMSB10, and TYROBP may serve as biomarkers and enhance our understanding of immune responses in DMD. The infiltration of immune cells into the muscle microenvironment might exert a critical impact on the development and occurrence of DMD.

History

References