Table_5_Comparative Genome Analysis of Hungarian and Global Strains of Salmonella Infantis.xlsx
The emergence and spread of new strains of zoonotic bacteria, such as multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella Infantis, represent a growing health risk for humans in and outside Europe due to foodborne infections of poultry meat origin.Objectives
In order to understand genome relations of S. Infantis strains from Hungary and from different geographic regions, we performed a comprehensive genome analysis of nine Hungarian and 67 globally selected strains of S. Infantis and 26 Salmonella strains representing 13 non-Infantis serovars.Results
Analyses of whole-, and accessory genomes, showed that almost all S. Infantis strains were separated from the non-Infantis serovars. S. Infantis strains from Hungary formed subclusters based on their time of isolation. In whole genome sequence analysis, the Swiss strains of S. Infantis were closely related to each other and clustered together with subclusters of strains from Hungary, Japan, Italy, United States, and Israel. The accessory genome analysis revealed that the Swiss strains were distinct from most of the strains investigated, including the Hungarian ones. Analysis of the cloud genes offered the most detailed insight into the genetic distance and relationship of S. Infantis strains confirming that the Swiss and Hungarian strains belonged to different lineages. As expected, core genome analysis provided the least discriminatory power for analysis of S. Infantis. Genomic sequences of nine strains from Brazil, Israel, Mexico, Nigeria, and Senegal (deposited as S. Infantis) proved to be outliers from the S. Infantis clade. They were predicted to be Salmonella Rissen, Salmonella Ouakarm, Salmonella Kentucky, Salmonella Thompson, and Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae.Conclusion
Accessory genome of S. Infantis showed the highest diversity suggesting a faster evolution than that of the whole genomes contributing to the emergence of multiple genetic variants of S. Infantis worldwide. Accordingly, in spite of the comprehensive analysis of several genomic characteristics, no epidemiologic links between these S. Infantis strains from different countries could be established. It is also concluded that several strains originally designated as S. Infantis need in databanks reclassification.