Table_5_Combined Analysis of the Transcriptome and Metabolome Revealed the Mechanism of Petal Coloration in Bauhinia variegata.XLS
Bauhinia variegata petals are colorful, rich in anthocyanins, and have ornamental, nutritional, and medicinal value. However, the regulatory mechanism of anthocyanin accumulation in B. variegata remains unclear. In this study, a combined analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome was performed in red and white B. variegata cultivars in the early, middle, and blooming stages. A total of 46 different anthocyanins were identified, of which 27 showed marked differences in accumulation between the two cultivars, and contribute to their different petal colors. Malvidin 3-O-galactoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside were much more abundant in the second stage of flowering. In the blooming stage, except for the anthocyanins mentioned, delphinidin 3-O-galactoside and petunidin 3-O-galactoside were the most abundant anthocyanins in the red flowers, indicating that malvidin, peonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, and petunidin were all responsible for the red color of petals in B. variegata. RNA sequencing identified 2,431 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 26 were involved in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway. Correlations between the anthocyanin biosynthesis-related DEGs and anthocyanin contents were explored, and the DEGs involved in anthocyanin accumulation in B. variegata petals were identified. Eighteen of these DEGs encoded key catalytic enzymes, such as anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and flavonoid-3′5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), and 17 of them encoded transcription factors (TFs) belonging to 14 families (including MYB, NAC, SPL, ERF, and CHR28). These results improve our understanding of the roles of anthocyanins, catalytic enzymes, and TFs in B. variegata petal-color expression.