Table_5_CoMB-Deep: Composite Deep Learning-Based Pipeline for Classifying Childhood Medulloblastoma and Its Classes.docx
Childhood medulloblastoma (MB) is a threatening malignant tumor affecting children all over the globe. It is believed to be the foremost common pediatric brain tumor causing death. Early and accurate classification of childhood MB and its classes are of great importance to help doctors choose the suitable treatment and observation plan, avoid tumor progression, and lower death rates. The current gold standard for diagnosing MB is the histopathology of biopsy samples. However, manual analysis of such images is complicated, costly, time-consuming, and highly dependent on the expertise and skills of pathologists, which might cause inaccurate results. This study aims to introduce a reliable computer-assisted pipeline called CoMB-Deep to automatically classify MB and its classes with high accuracy from histopathological images. This key challenge of the study is the lack of childhood MB datasets, especially its four categories (defined by the WHO) and the inadequate related studies. All relevant works were based on either deep learning (DL) or textural analysis feature extractions. Also, such studies employed distinct features to accomplish the classification procedure. Besides, most of them only extracted spatial features. Nevertheless, CoMB-Deep blends the advantages of textural analysis feature extraction techniques and DL approaches. The CoMB-Deep consists of a composite of DL techniques. Initially, it extracts deep spatial features from 10 convolutional neural networks (CNNs). It then performs a feature fusion step using discrete wavelet transform (DWT), a texture analysis method capable of reducing the dimension of fused features. Next, the CoMB-Deep explores the best combination of fused features, enhancing the performance of the classification process using two search strategies. Afterward, it employs two feature selection techniques on the fused feature sets selected in the previous step. A bi-directional long-short term memory (Bi-LSTM) network; a DL-based approach that is utilized for the classification phase. CoMB-Deep maintains two classification categories: binary category for distinguishing between the abnormal and normal cases and multi-class category to identify the subclasses of MB. The results of the CoMB-Deep for both classification categories prove that it is reliable. The results also indicate that the feature sets selected using both search strategies have enhanced the performance of Bi-LSTM compared to individual spatial deep features. CoMB-Deep is compared to related studies to verify its competitiveness, and this comparison confirmed its robustness and outperformance. Hence, CoMB-Deep can help pathologists perform accurate diagnoses, reduce misdiagnosis risks that could occur with manual diagnosis, accelerate the classification procedure, and decrease diagnosis costs.