Table_4_Revealing the Angiopathy of Lacrimal Gland Lesion in Type 2 Diabetes.XLSX
For a better understanding of diabetic angiopathy (DA), the potential biomarkers in lacrimal DA and its potential mechanism, we evaluated the morphological and hemodynamic alterations of lacrimal glands (LGs) in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy counterparts by color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI). We further established a type 2 diabetic mice model and performed hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, immunofluorescence staining of CD31, RNA-sequencing analysis, and connectivity map (CMap) analysis. We found atrophy and ischemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and mice models. Furthermore, we identified 846 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and vehicle mice by RNA-seq. The gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated significant enrichment of immune system process, regulation of blood circulation, apoptotic, regulation of secretion, regulation of blood vessel diameter, and so on. The molecular complex detection (MCODE) showed 17 genes were involved in the most significant module, and 6/17 genes were involved in vascular disorders. CytoHubba revealed the top 10 hub genes of DEGs, and four hub genes (App, F5, Fgg, and Gas6) related to vascular regulation were identified repeatedly by MCODE and cytoHubba. GeneMANIA analysis demonstrated functions of the four hub genes above and their associated molecules were primarily related to the regulation of circulation and coagulation. CMap analysis found several small molecular compounds to reverse the altered DEGs, including disulfiram, bumetanide, genistein, and so on. Our outputs could empower the novel potential targets to treat lacrimal angiopathy, diabetes dry eye, and other diabetes-related diseases.