Table_4_Primary Metabolism Is Distinctly Modulated by Plant Resistance Inducers in Coffea arabica Leaves Infected by Hemileia vastatrix.xlsx

Epidemics of coffee leaf rust (CLR) leads to great yield losses and huge depreciation of coffee marketing values, if no control measures are applied. Societal expectations of a more sustainable coffee production are increasingly imposing the replacement of fungicide treatments by alternative solutions. A protection strategy is to take advantage of the plant immune system by eliciting constitutive defenses. Based on such concept, plant resistance inducers (PRIs) have been developed. The Greenforce CuCa formulation, similarly to acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), shows promising results in the control of CLR (Hemileia vastatrix) in Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo. The molecular mechanisms of PRIs action are poorly understood. In order to contribute to its elucidation a proteomic, physiological (leaf gas-exchange) and biochemical (enzymatic) analyses were performed. Coffee leaves treated with Greenforce CuCa and ASM and inoculation with H. vastatrix were considered. Proteomics revealed that both PRIs lead to metabolic adjustments but, inducing distinct proteins. These proteins were related with photosynthesis, protein metabolism and stress responses. Greenforce CuCa increased photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, while ASM caused a decrease in these parameters. It was further observed that Greenforce CuCa reinforces the redox homeostasis of the leaf, while ASM seems to affect preferentially the secondary metabolism and the stress-related proteins. So, the PRIs prepare the plant to resist CLR but, inducing different defense mechanisms upon pathogen infection. The existence of a link between the primary metabolism and defense responses was evidenced. The identification of components of the plant primary metabolism, essential for plant growth and development that, simultaneously, participate in the plant defense responses can open new perspectives for plant breeding programs.