Table_4_Multi-Location Evaluation of Global Wheat Lines Reveal Multiple QTL for Adult Plant Resistance to Septoria Nodorum Blotch (SNB) Detected in Specific Environments and in Response to Different Isolates.DOCX
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The slow rate of genetic gain for improving resistance to Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) is due to the inherent complex interactions between host, isolates, and environments. Breeding for improved SNB resistance requires evaluation and selection of wheat genotypes consistently expressing low SNB response in different target production environments. The study focused on evaluating 232 genotypes from global origins for resistance to SNB in the flag leaf expressed in different Western Australian environments. The aim was to identify resistant donor germplasm against historical and contemporary pathogen isolates and enhance our knowledge of the genetic basis of genotype-by-environment interactions for SNB response. Australian wheat varieties, inbred lines from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT), and International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), and landraces from discrete regions of the world showed low to moderate phenotypic correlation for disease response amongst genotypes when evaluated with historical and contemporary isolates at two locations across 3 years in Western Australia (WA). Significant (P < 0.001) genotype-by-environment interactions were detected regardless of same or different isolates used as an inoculum source. Joint regression analysis identified 19 genotypes that consistently expressed low disease severity under infection with different isolates in multi-locations. The CIMMYT inbred lines, 30ZJN09 and ZJN12 Qno25, were particularly pertinent as they had low SNB response and highest trait stability at two locations across 3 years. Genome wide association studies detected 20 QTL associated with SNB resistance on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 4B, 5A, 5B, 6A, 7A, 7B, and 7D. QTL on chromosomes 1B and 5B were previously reported in similar genomic regions. Multiple QTL were identified on 1B, 5B, 6A, and 5A and detected in response to SNB infection against different isolates and specific environments. Known SnTox-Snn interactions were either not evident or variable across WA environments and SNB response may involve other multiple complex biological mechanisms.
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