Table_4_Microbiome Analysis Reveals Microecological Balance in the Emerging Rice–Crayfish Integrated Breeding Mode.DOCX
The interaction between the microbial communities in aquatic animals and those in the ambient environment is important for both healthy aquatic animals and the ecological balance of aquatic environment. Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), with their high commercial value, have become the highest-yield freshwater shrimp in China. The traditional cultivation in ponds (i.e., monoculture, MC) and emerging cultivation in rice co-culture fields (i.e., rice–crayfish co-culture, RC) are the two main breeding modes for crayfish, and the integrated RC is considered to be a successful rice-livestock integration practice in eco-agricultural systems. This study explored the ecological interactions between the microbial communities in crayfish intestine and the ambient environment, which have not been fully described to date. The bacterial communities in crayfish intestine, the surrounding water, and sediment in the two main crayfish breeding modes were analyzed with MiSeq sequencing and genetic networks. In total, 53 phyla and 1,206 genera were identified, among which Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Tenericutes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, RsaHF231, and Nitrospirae were the dominant phyla. The microbiota composition significantly differed between the water, sediment, and crayfish intestine, while it did not between the two breeding modes. We also generated a co-occurrence correlation network based on the high-confidence interactions with Spearman correlation ρ ≥ 0.75. In the genera co-correlation network, 95 nodes and 1,158 edges were identified, indicating significant genera interactions between crayfish intestine and the environment. Furthermore, the genera clustered into three modules, based on the different environments. Additionally, Candidatus_Bacilloplasma, g_norank_f_Steroidobacteraceae, Dinghuibacter, Hydrogenophaga, Methyloparacoccus, and Defluviicoccus had the highest betweenness centrality and might be important in the interaction between crayfish and the ambient environment. Overall, this study enhances our understanding of the characteristics of the microbiota in crayfish and their surrounding environment. Moreover, our findings provide insights into the microecological balance in crayfish eco-agricultural systems and theoretical reference for the development of such systems.