Table_4_Identification and Characterization of a Novel Emaravirus From Grapevine Showing Chlorotic Mottling Symptoms.docx
A novel negative-sense, single-stranded (ss) RNA virus was identified in a “Shennong Jinhuanghou” (SJ) grapevine showing severe chlorotic mottling symptoms by integrating high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and conventional Sanger sequencing of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products. The virus was provisionally named as “grapevine emaravirus A” (GEVA). GEVA had a genome comprising five genomic RNA segments, each containing a single open reading frame on the viral complementary strand and two untranslated regions with complementary 13- nt stretches at the 5′ and 3′ terminal ends. RNA1 (7,090 nt), RNA2 (2,097 nt), RNA3 (1,615 nt), and RNA4 (1,640 nt) encoded putative proteins P1–P4 that, based on their conserved motifs, were identified as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, glycoprotein, nucleocapsid protein, and movement protein, respectively. However, the functional role of protein P5 encoded by RNA5 (1,308 nt) could not be determined. Phylogenetic trees constructed based on amino acids of P1 to P4, allocated GEVA in clade I, together with other species-related emaraviruses. These data support the proposal that GEVA is a representative member of a novel species in the genus Emaravirus of the family Fimoviridae. Moreover, when GEVA was graft-transmitted to SJ and “Beta” grapevines, all grafted plants showed the same symptoms, similar to those observed in the source of the inoculum. This is the first report to our knowledge of an emaravirus infecting grapevine and its possible association with chlorotic mottling symptoms.