Table_4_Genome-Scale Profiling and High-Throughput Analyses Unravel the Genetic Basis of Arsenic Content Variation in Rice.xlsx
Ionomics, the study of the composition of mineral nutrients and trace elements in organisms that represent the inorganic component of cells and tissues, has been widely studied to explore to unravel the molecular mechanism regulating the elemental composition of plants. However, the genetic factors of rice subspecies in the interaction between arsenic and functional ions have not yet been explained. Here, the correlation between As and eight essential ions in a rice core collection was analyzed, taking into account growing condition and genetic factors. The results demonstrated that the correlation between As and essential ions was affected by genetic factors and growing condition, but it was confirmed that the genetic factor was slightly larger with the heritability for arsenic content at 53%. In particular, the cluster coefficient of japonica (0.428) was larger than that of indica (0.414) in the co-expression network analysis for 23 arsenic genes, and it was confirmed that the distance between genes involved in As induction and detoxification of japonica was far than that of indica. These findings provide evidence that japonica populations could accumulate more As than indica populations. In addition, the cis-eQTLs of AIR2 (arsenic-induced RING finger protein) were isolated through transcriptome-wide association studies, and it was confirmed that AIR2 expression levels of indica were lower than those of japonica. This was consistent with the functional haplotype results for the genome sequence of AIR2, and finally, eight rice varieties with low AIR2 expression and arsenic content were selected. In addition, As-related QTLs were identified on chromosomes 5 and 6 under flooded and intermittently flooded conditions through genome-scale profiling. Taken together, these results might assist in developing markers and breeding plans to reduce toxic element content and breeding high-quality rice varieties in future.