Table_4_A Panel of Bile Volatile Organic Compounds Servers as a Potential Diagnostic Biomarker for Gallbladder Cancer.docx (14.5 kB)
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Table_4_A Panel of Bile Volatile Organic Compounds Servers as a Potential Diagnostic Biomarker for Gallbladder Cancer.docx

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posted on 30.03.2022, 05:28 authored by Xin Zhang, Xinru Gui, Yanli Zhang, Qi Liu, Liqiang Zhao, Jingxian Gao, Jian Ji, Yi Zhang

As no reliable diagnostic methods are available, gallbladder cancer (GBC) is often diagnosed until advanced stages, resulting in a poor prognosis. In the present study, we assessed whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be used as a diagnostic tool for GBC. The VOCs in bile samples collected from 32 GBC patients were detected by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), and 54 patients with benign gallbladder diseases (BGD) were used as controls. Both principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis gave a clear separation of GBC and BGD based on the bile VOC data collected from GC-IMS. A total of 12 differentially expressed VOCs were identified, including four upregulated (cyclohexanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, acetophenone, and methyl benzoate) and eight downregulated [methyl acetate, (E)-hept-2-enal, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-pentenal, pentan-1-ol, 1-octen-3-one, and (E)-2-octenal] in GBC compared with BGD. ROC analysis demonstrated a 12-VOC panel con-structed by four machine learning algorithms, which was superior to the traditional tumor marker, CA19-9. Among them, support vector machines and linear discriminant analysis provided the highest AUCs of 0.972, with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94.4% in the diagnosis of GBC. Collectively, VOCs might be used as a potential tool for the diagnosis of GBC.

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