Table_3_Xanthomonas citri pv. viticola Affecting Grapevine in Brazil: Emergence of a Successful Monomorphic Pathogen.xlsx

The pathovar viticola of Xanthomonas citri causes bacterial canker of grapevine. This disease was first recorded in India in 1972, and later in Brazil in 1998, where its distribution is currently restricted to the northeastern region. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on seven housekeeping genes and a multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) with eight loci were performed in order to assess the genetic relatedness among strains from India and Brazil. Strains isolated in India from three related pathovars affecting Vitaceae species and pathogenic strains isolated from Amaranthus sp. found in bacterial canker-infected vineyards in Brazil were also included. MLSA revealed lack of diversity in all seven genes and grouped grapevine and Amaranthus strains in a monophyletic group in X. citri. The VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) typing scheme conducted on 107 strains detected 101 haplotypes. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 12. A minimum spanning tree (MST) showed that Brazilian strains were clearly separated from Indian strains, which showed unique alleles at three loci. The two strains isolated from symptomatic Amaranthus sp. presented unique alleles at two loci. STRUCTURE analyses revealed three groups congruent with MST and a fourth group with strains from India and Brazil. Admixture among populations were observed in all groups. MST, STRUCTURE and e-BURST analyses showed that the strains collected in 1998 belong to two distinct groups, with predicted founder genotypes from two different vineyards in the same region. This suggest that one introduction of grape planting materials contaminated with genetically distinct strains took place, which was followed by pathogen adaptation. Genome sequencing of one Brazilian strain confirmed typical attributes of pathogenic xanthomonads and allowed the design of a complementary VNTR typing scheme dedicated to X. citri pv. viticola that will allow further epidemiological survey of this genetically monomorphic pathovar.