Table_3_Systems Biology Modeling of the Complement System Under Immune Susceptible Pathogens.pdf (177.66 kB)
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Table_3_Systems Biology Modeling of the Complement System Under Immune Susceptible Pathogens.pdf

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posted on 29.04.2021, 06:38 authored by Nehemiah T. Zewde, Rohaine V. Hsu, Dimitrios Morikis, Giulia Palermo

The complement system is assembled from a network of proteins that function to bring about the first line of defense of the body against invading pathogens. However, complement deficiencies or invasive pathogens can hijack complement to subsequently increase susceptibility of the body to infections. Moreover, invasive pathogens are increasingly becoming resistant to the currently available therapies. Hence, it is important to gain insights into the highly dynamic interaction between complement and invading microbes in the frontlines of immunity. Here, we developed a mathematical model of the complement system composed of 670 ordinary differential equations with 328 kinetic parameters, which describes all three complement pathways (alternative, classical, and lectin) and includes description of mannose-binding lectin, collectins, ficolins, factor H-related proteins, immunoglobulin M, and pentraxins. Additionally, we incorporate two pathogens: (type 1) complement susceptible pathogen and (type 2) Neisseria meningitidis located in either nasopharynx or bloodstream. In both cases, we generate time profiles of the pathogen surface occupied by complement components and the membrane attack complex (MAC). Our model shows both pathogen types in bloodstream are saturated by complement proteins, whereas MACs occupy <<1.0% of the pathogen surface. Conversely, the MAC production in nasopharynx occupies about 1.5–10% of the total N. meningitidis surface, thus making nasal MAC levels at least about eight orders of magnitude higher. Altogether, we predict complement-imbalance, favoring overactivation, is associated with nasopharynx homeostasis. Conversely, orientating toward complement-balance may cause disruption to the nasopharynx homeostasis. Thus, for sporadic meningococcal disease, our model predicts rising nasal levels of complement regulators as early infection biomarkers.