Table_3_Systematic Analyses of the Role of the Reader Protein of N6-Methyladenosine RNA Methylation, YTH Domain Family 2, in Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma.xlsx
YTH domain family (YTHDF) 2 acts as a “reader” protein for RNA methylation, which is important in tumor regulation. However, the effect of YTHDF2 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) has yet to be elucidated.Methods
We explored the role of YTHDF2 in LIHC based on publicly available datasets [The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)]. A bioinformatics approach was employed to analyze YTHDF2. Logistic regression analyses were applied to analyze the correlation between YTHDF2 expression and clinical characteristics. To evaluate the effect of YTHDF2 on the prognosis of LIHC patients, we used Kaplan–Meier (K–M) curves. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was undertaken using TCGA dataset. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were used to ascertain the correlations between YTHDF2 expression and clinicopathologic characteristics with survival. Genes co-expressed with YTHDF2 were identified and detected using publicly available datasets [LinkedOmics, University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), and GEO]. Correlations between YTHDF2 and infiltration of immune cells were investigated by Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) and GEPIA.Results
mRNA and protein expression of YTHDF2 was significantly higher in LIHC tissues than in non-cancerous tissues. High YTHDF2 expression in LIHC was associated with poor prognostic clinical factors (high stage, grade, and T classification). K–M analyses indicated that high YTHDF2 expression was correlated with an unfavorable prognosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses revealed that YTHDF2 was an independent factor for a poor prognosis in LIHC patients. GSEA revealed that the high-expression phenotype of YTHDF2 was consistent with the molecular pathways implicated in LIHC carcinogenesis. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that YTHDF2 might have a diagnostic value in LIHC patients. YTHDF2 expression was associated positively with SF3A3 expression, which implied that they may cooperate in LIHC progression. YTHDF2 expression was associated with infiltration of immune cells and their marker genes. YTHDF2 had the potential to regulate polarization of tumor-associated macrophages, induce T-cell exhaustion, and activate T-regulatory cells.Conclusion
YTHDF2 may be a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of LIHC and may provide new directions and strategies for LIHC treatment.
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