Table_3_Potential preventive markers in the intracerebral hemorrhage process are revealed by serum untargeted metabolomics in mice using hypertensive cerebral microbleeds.xlsx
Hypertensive cerebral microbleeds (HCMB) may be the early stage of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH), which is a serious threat to health due to its high mortality and disability rates. The early clinical symptoms of HCMB may not be significant. Moreover, it is difficult to achieve early diagnosis and intervention for targeted prevention of HICH. Although hypertension (HTN) is a predisposition for HCMB, it remains unclear whether there is any difference between hypertensive patients with or without HCMB. Therefore, we carried out liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyze early biomarkers for HCMB in mice with hypertension and to lay the foundation for early prevention of HICH in hypertensive patients. In total, 18 C57 male mice were randomly divided into the HCMB (n = 6), HTN (n = 6), and control groups (CON, n = 6). Hematoxylin-eosin and diaminobenzidine staining were used to assess the reliability of the model. The metabolite expression level and sample category stability were tested using the displacement test of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Significant differences in metabolites were screened out using variable importance in the projection (VIP > 1), which were determined using the OPLS-DA model and the P-value of the t-test (P < 0.05) combined with the nonparametric rank-sum test. With an area under the curve (AUC) > 0.85 and a P-value of 0.05, the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to further screen the distinct metabolites of HCMB. Compared with the HTN and CON groups, the HCMB group had significantly higher blood pressure and lower average body weight (P < 0.05). Through untargeted LC-MS analysis, 93 distinct metabolites were identified in the HCMB (P < 0.05, VIP > 1) group. Among these potential biomarkers, six significantly decreased and eight significantly increased differential metabolites were found. Meanwhile, we found that the HCMB group had statistically distinct arginine and purine metabolism pathways (P < 0.05), and citrulline may be the most significant possible biomarker of HCMB (AUC > 0.85, P < 0.05). All of these potential biomarkers may serve as early biomarkers for HICH in hypertension.