Table_3_Integrated molecular and pharmacological characterization of patient-derived xenografts from bladder and ureteral cancers identifies new potential therapies.xls
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) are molecularly heterogeneous. Despite chemotherapies, immunotherapies, or anti-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) treatments, these tumors are still of a poor outcome. Our objective was to develop a bank of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) recapitulating the molecular heterogeneity of MIBC and UTUC, to facilitate the preclinical identification of therapies.Methods
Fresh tumors were obtained from patients and subcutaneously engrafted into immune-compromised mice. Patient tumors and matched PDXs were compared regarding histopathology, transcriptomic (microarrays), and genomic profiles [targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)]. Several PDXs were treated with chemotherapy (cisplatin/gemcitabine) or targeted therapies [FGFR and epidermal growth factor (EGFR) inhibitors].Results
A total of 31 PDXs were established from 1 non-MIBC, 25 MIBC, and 5 upper urinary tract tumors, including 28 urothelial (UC) and 3 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Integrated genomic and transcriptomic profiling identified the PDXs of three different consensus molecular subtypes [basal/squamous (Ba/Sq), luminal papillary, and luminal unstable] and included FGFR3-mutated PDXs. High histological and genomic concordance was found between matched patient tumor/PDX. Discordance in molecular subtypes, such as a Ba/Sq patient tumor giving rise to a luminal papillary PDX, was observed (n=5) at molecular and histological levels. Ten models were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and we did not observe any association between subtypes and the response. Of the three Ba/Sq models treated with anti-EGFR therapy, two models were sensitive, and one model, of the sarcomatoid variant, was resistant. The treatment of three FGFR3-mutant PDXs with combined FGFR/EGFR inhibitors was more efficient than anti-FGFR3 treatment alone.Conclusions
We developed preclinical PDX models that recapitulate the molecular heterogeneity of MIBCs and UTUC, including actionable mutations, which will represent an essential tool in therapy development. The pharmacological characterization of the PDXs suggested that the upper urinary tract and MIBCs, not only UC but also SCC, with similar molecular characteristics could benefit from the same treatments including anti-FGFR for FGFR3-mutated tumors and anti-EGFR for basal ones and showed a benefit for combined FGFR/EGFR inhibition in FGFR3-mutant PDXs, compared to FGFR inhibition alone.