Table_3_Identification of Resistance Sources and Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Septoria Tritici Blotch Resistance in Spring Bread Wheat Germplasm of ICARDA.XLSX
Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat, caused by the ascomycete Zymoseptoria tritici (formerly Mycosphaerella graminicola), is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat. In Morocco, STB is a devastating disease in temperate wheat-growing regions, and the yield losses can exceed up to 50% under favorable conditions. The aims of this study were to identify sources of resistance to STB in Septoria Association Mapping Panel (SAMP), which is composed of 377 advanced breeding lines (ABLs) from spring bread wheat breeding program of ICARDA, and to identify loci associated with resistance to STB at seedling (SRT) as well as at the adult plant (APS) stages using genome-wide association mapping (GWAM). Seedling resistance was evaluated under controlled conditions with two virulent isolates of STB (SAT-2 and 71-R3) from Morocco, whereas adult plant resistance was assessed at two hot spot locations in Morocco (Sidi Allal Tazi, Marchouch) under artificial inoculation with a mixture of STB isolates. At seedling stage, 45 and 32 ABLs were found to be resistant to 71-R3 and SAT-2 isolates of STB, respectively. At adult plant stage, 50 ABLs were found to be resistant at hot spot locations in Morocco. Furthermore, 10 genotypes showed resistance in both locations during two cropping seasons. GWAM was conducted with 9,988 SNP markers using phenotypic data for seedling and the adult plant stage. MLM model was employed in TASSEL 5 (v 5.2.53) using principal component analysis and Kinship Matrix as covariates. The GWAM analysis indicated 14 quantitative trait loci (QTL) at the seedling stage (8 for isolate SAT-2 and 6 for isolate 71-R3), while 23 QTL were detected at the adult plant stage resistance (4 at MCH-17, 16 at SAT-17, and 3 at SAT-18). SRT QTL explained together 33.3% of the phenotypic variance for seedling resistance to STB isolate SAT-2 and 28.3% for 71-R3, respectively. QTL for adult plant stage resistance explained together 13.1, 68.6, and 11.9% of the phenotypic variance for MCH-17, SAT-17, and SAT-18, respectively. Identification of STB-resistant spring bread wheat germplasm in combination with QTL detected both at SRT and APS stage will serve as an important resource in STB resistance breeding efforts.