Table_3_Identification of CALU and PALLD as Potential Biomarkers Associated With Immune Infiltration in Heart Failure.DOCX
Background: Inflammatory activation and immune infiltration play important roles in the pathologic process of heart failure (HF). The current study is designed to investigate the immune infiltration and identify related biomarkers in heart failure patients due to ischemic cardiomyopathy.
Methods: Expression data of HF due to ischemic cardiomyopathy (CM) samples and non-heart failure (NF) samples were downloaded from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between CM and NF samples were identified. Single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) was performed to explore the landscape of immune infiltration. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was applied to screen the most relevant module associated with immune infiltration. The diagnostic values of candidate genes were evaluated by receiver operating curves (ROC) curves. The mRNA levels of potential biomarkers in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from 10 CM patients and 10 NF patients were analyzed to further assess their diagnostic values.
Results: A total of 224 DEGs were identified between CM and NF samples in GSE5406, which are mainly enriched in the protein processing and extracellular matrix related biological processes and pathways. The result of ssGSEA showed that the abundance of dendritic cells (DC), mast cells, natural killer (NK) CD56dim cells, T cells, T follicular helper cells (Tfh), gammadelta T cells (Tgd) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells were significantly higher, while the infiltration of eosinophils and central memory T cells (Tcm) were lower in CM samples compared to NF ones. Correlation analysis revealed that Calumenin (CALU) and palladin (PALLD) were negatively correlated with the abundance of DC, NK CD56dim cells, T cells, Tfh, Tgd and Th2 cells, but positively correlated with the level of Tcm. More importantly, CALU and PALLD were significantly lower in PBMCs from CM patients compared to NF ones.
Conclusion: Our study revealed that CALU and PALLD are potential biomarkers associated with immune infiltration in heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy.