Table_3_Global Characterization of Fungal Mitogenomes: New Insights on Genomic Diversity and Dynamism of Coding Genes and Accessory Elements.XLSX (79.28 kB)
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Table_3_Global Characterization of Fungal Mitogenomes: New Insights on Genomic Diversity and Dynamism of Coding Genes and Accessory Elements.XLSX

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posted on 01.12.2021, 04:40 authored by Paula L. C. Fonseca, Ruth B. De-Paula, Daniel S. Araújo, Luiz Marcelo Ribeiro Tomé, Thairine Mendes-Pereira, Wenderson Felipe Costa Rodrigues, Luiz-Eduardo Del-Bem, Eric R. G. R. Aguiar, Aristóteles Góes-Neto

Fungi comprise a great diversity of species with distinct ecological functions and lifestyles. Similar to other eukaryotes, fungi rely on interactions with prokaryotes and one of the most important symbiotic events was the acquisition of mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles found in eukaryotic cells whose main function is to generate energy through aerobic respiration. Mitogenomes (mtDNAs) are double-stranded circular or linear DNA from mitochondria that may contain core genes and accessory elements that can be replicated, transcribed, and independently translated from the nuclear genome. Despite their importance, investigative studies on the diversity of fungal mitogenomes are scarce. Herein, we have evaluated 788 curated fungal mitogenomes available at NCBI database to assess discrepancies and similarities among them and to better understand the mechanisms involved in fungal mtDNAs variability. From a total of 12 fungal phyla, four do not have any representative with available mitogenomes, which highlights the underrepresentation of some groups in the current available data. We selected representative and non-redundant mitogenomes based on the threshold of 90% similarity, eliminating 81 mtDNAs. Comparative analyses revealed considerable size variability of mtDNAs with a difference of up to 260 kb in length. Furthermore, variation in mitogenome length and genomic composition are generally related to the number and length of accessory elements (introns, HEGs, and uORFs). We identified an overall average of 8.0 (0–39) introns, 8.0 (0–100) HEGs, and 8.2 (0–102) uORFs per genome, with high variation among phyla. Even though the length of the core protein-coding genes is considerably conserved, approximately 36.3% of the mitogenomes evaluated have at least one of the 14 core coding genes absent. Also, our results revealed that there is not even a single gene shared among all mitogenomes. Other unusual genes in mitogenomes were also detected in many mitogenomes, such as dpo and rpo, and displayed diverse evolutionary histories. Altogether, the results presented in this study suggest that fungal mitogenomes are diverse, contain accessory elements and are absent of a conserved gene that can be used for the taxonomic classification of the Kingdom Fungi.

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