Table_3_Genome Analysis Coupled With Transcriptomics Reveals the Reduced Fitness of a Hot Spring Cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus UU774 Under Exogenous Nitrogen Supplement.XLSX
The present study focuses on the stress response of a filamentous, AT-rich, heterocystous cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus UU774, isolated from a hot spring, Taptapani, located in the eastern part of India. The genome of UU774 contains an indispensable fragment, scaffold_38, of unknown origin that is implicated during severe nitrogen and nutrition stress. Prolonged exposure to nitrogen compounds during starvation has profound adverse effects on UU774, leading to loss of mobility, loss of ability to fight pathogens, reduced cell division, decreased nitrogen-fixing ability, reduced ability to form biofilms, reduced photosynthetic and light-sensing ability, and reduced production of secreted effectors and chromosomal toxin genes, among others. Among genes showing extreme downregulation when grown in a medium supplemented with nitrogen with the fold change > 5 are transcriptional regulator gene WalR, carbonic anhydrases, RNA Polymerase Sigma F factor, fimbrial protein, and twitching mobility protein. The reduced expression of key enzymes involved in the uptake of phosphate and enzymes protecting oxygen-sensitive nitrogenases is significant during the presence of nitrogen. UU774 is presumed to withstand heat by overexpressing peptidases that may be degrading abnormally folded proteins produced during heat. The absence of a key gene responsible for heterocyst pattern formation, patS, and an aberrant hetN without a functional motif probably lead to the formation of a chaotic heterocyst pattern in UU774. We suggest that UU774 has diverged from Fischerella sp. PCC 9339, another hot spring species isolated in the United States.