Table_3_Enhancing urinary tract infection diagnosis for negative culture patients with metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS).xlsx
Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a promising technology that allows unbiased pathogen detection and is increasingly being used for clinical diagnoses. However, its application in urinary tract infection (UTI) is still scarce.Methods
The medical records of 33 patients with suspected UTI who were admitted to the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from March 2021 to July 2022 and received urine mNGS were retrospectively analyzed. The performance of mNGS and conventional urine culture in diagnosing infection and identifying causative organisms was compared, and the treatment effects were evaluated in terms of changes in urinalyses and urinary symptoms.Results
In the detection of bacteria and fungi, mNGS detected at least one pathogen in 29 (87.9%) cases, including 19 (57.6%) with positive mNGS but negative culture results and 10 (30.3%) with both mNGS and culture positive results. The remaining 4 (12.1%) patients were negative by both tests. Overall, mNGS performed better than culture (87.9% vs. 30.3%, P < 0.001). Within the 10 double-positive patients, mNGS matched culture results exactly in 5 cases, partially in 4 cases, and not at all in 1 case. In addition, mNGS detected a broader pathogen spectrum, detecting 26 species compared to only 5 species found in culture. The most abundant bacteria detected by mNGS was Escherichia coli, detected in 9 (27.2%) patients. All anaerobic bacteria, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and all mixed pathogens were detected by mNGS. The final clinical diagnosis of UTI was made in 25 cases, and the sensitivity of mNGS was significantly higher than culture (100.0% vs 40.0%; P < 0.001) when using the diagnosis as a reference standard; the positive predictive value, negative predictive value and specificity were 86.2%, 100% and 50.0%, respectively. Importantly, targeted antibiotic therapy based on mNGS resulted in significant improvement in urinalyses and urinary symptoms in patients.Conclusions
mNGS is a technology that has shown clear advantages over culture, particularly in the context of mixed infections and UTIs that are difficult to diagnose and treat. It helps to improve the detection of pathogens, guide changes in treatment strategies, and is an effective complement to urine culture.