Table_3_Analysis of Barley Leaf Epidermis and Extrahaustorial Proteomes During Powdery Mildew Infection Reveals That the PR5 Thaumatin-Like Protein TLP5 Is Required for Susceptibility Towards Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei.docx
Powdery mildews are biotrophic pathogens causing fungal diseases in many economically important crops, including cereals, which are affected by Blumeria graminis. Powdery mildews only invade the epidermal cell layer of leaf tissues, in which they form haustorial structures. Haustoria are at the center of the biotrophic interaction by taking up nutrients from the host and by delivering effectors in the invaded cells to jeopardize plant immunity. Haustoria are composed of a fungal core delimited by a haustorial plasma membrane and cell wall. Surrounding these is the extrahaustorial complex, of which the extrahaustorial membrane is of plant origin. Although haustoria transcriptomes and proteomes have been investigated for Blumeria, the proteomes of barley epidermis upon infection and the barley components of the extrahaustorial complex remains unexplored. When comparing proteomes of infected and non-infected epidermis, several classical pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were more abundant in infected epidermis. These included peroxidases, chitinases, cysteine-rich venom secreted proteins/PR1 and two thaumatin-like PR5 protein isoforms, of which TLP5 was previously shown to interact with the Blumeria effector BEC1054 (CSEP0064). Against expectations, transient TLP5 gene silencing suggested that TLP5 does not contribute to resistance but modulates susceptibility towards B. graminis. In a second proteomics comparison, haustorial structures were enriched from infected epidermal strips to identify plant proteins closely associated with the extrahaustorial complex. In these haustoria-enriched samples, relative abundances were higher for several V-type ATP synthase/ATPase subunits, suggesting the generation of proton gradients in the extrahaustorial space. Other haustoria-associated proteins included secreted or membrane proteins such as a PIP2 aquaporin, an early nodulin-like protein 9, an aspartate protease and other proteases, a lipase, and a lipid transfer protein, all of which are potential modulators of immunity, or the targets of pathogen effectors. Moreover, the ER BIP-like HSP70, may link ER stress responses and the idea of ER-like properties previously attributed to the extrahaustorial membrane. This initial investigation exploring the barley proteomes of Blumeria-infected tissues and haustoria, associated with a transient gene silencing approach, is invaluable to gain first insight of key players of resistance and susceptibility.