Table_2_Transcriptome Characterization of Repressed Embryonic Myogenesis Due to Maternal Calorie Restriction.DOC

Fetal malnutrition decreases skeletal myofiber number and muscle mass in neonatal mammals, which increases the risk of developing obesity and diabetes in adult life. However, the associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated how the nutrient (calorie) availability affects embryonic myogenesis using a porcine model. Sows were given a normal or calorie restricted diet, following which skeletal muscle was harvested from the fetuses at 35, 55, and 90 days of gestation (dg) and used for histochemical analysis and high-throughput sequencing. We observed abrupt repression of primary myofiber formation following maternal calorie restriction (MCR). Transcriptome profiling of prenatal muscles revealed that critical genes and muscle-specific miRNAs associated with increased proliferation and myoblast differentiation were downregulated during MCR-induced repression of myogenesis. Moreover, we identified several novel miRNA-mRNA interactions through an integrative analysis of their expression profiles, devising a putative molecular network involved in the regulation of myogenesis. Interestingly, NC_010454.3_1179 was identified as a novel myogenic miRNA that can base-pair with sequences in the 3′-UTR of myogenic differentiation protein 1 (MyoD1). And we found that this UTR inhibited the expression of a linked reporter gene encoding a key myogenic regulatory factor, resulting in suppression of myogenesis. Our results greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the nutrient-modulated myogenesis, and may also serve as a valuable resource for further investigation of fundamental developmental processes or assist in rational target selection ameliorating repressed myogenesis under fetal malnutrition.