Table_2_The Broad Habitat Spectrum of the CL500-11 Lineage (Phylum Chloroflexi), a Dominant Bacterioplankton in Oxygenated Hypolimnia of Deep Freshwater Lakes.xlsx
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CL500-11 (phylum Chloroflexi) is one of the most ubiquitous and abundant bacterioplankton lineages in deep freshwater lakes inhabiting the oxygenated hypolimnion. While metagenomics predicted possible eco-physiological characteristics of this uncultured lineage, no consensus on their ecology has so far been reached, partly because their niche is not clearly understood due to a limited number of quantitative field observations. This study investigated the abundance and distribution of CL500-11 in seven deep perialpine lakes using catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). Samples were taken vertically (5–12 depths in each lake) and temporally (in two lakes) at the deepest point of the lakes located in Switzerland, Italy, and Austria with varying depth, trophic state, mixing regime, and water retention time. The results showed a dominance of CL500-11 in all the lakes; their proportion to total prokaryotes ranged from 4.3% (Mondsee) to 24.3% (Lake Garda) and their abundance ranged from 0.65 × 105 (Mondsee) to 1.77 × 105 (Lake Garda) cells mL-1. By summarizing available information on CL500-11 occurrence to date, we demonstrated their broad habitat spectrum, ranging from ultra-oligotrophic to meso-eutrophic lakes, while low abundances or complete absence was observed in lakes with shallow depth, low pH, and/or short water retention time (<1 year). Together with available metagenomic and geochemical evidences from literatures, here we reviewed potential substrates supporting growth of CL500-11. Overall, the present study further endorsed ubiquity and quantitative significance of CL500-11 in deep freshwater systems and narrowed the focus on their physiological characteristics and ecological importance.
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