Table_2_Segmentation of Tricuspid Valve Leaflets From Transthoracic 3D Echocardiograms of Children With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Using Deep Learning.XLSX
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe congenital heart defect in which the right ventricle and associated tricuspid valve (TV) alone support the circulation. TV failure is thus associated with heart failure, and the outcome of TV valve repair are currently poor. 3D echocardiography (3DE) can generate high-quality images of the valve, but segmentation is necessary for precise modeling and quantification. There is currently no robust methodology for rapid TV segmentation, limiting the clinical application of these technologies to this challenging population. We utilized a Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) to segment tricuspid valves from transthoracic 3DE. We trained on 133 3DE image-segmentation pairs and validated on 28 images. We then assessed the effect of varying inputs to the FCN using Mean Boundary Distance (MBD) and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). The FCN with the input of an annular curve achieved a median DSC of 0.86 [IQR: 0.81–0.88] and MBD of 0.35 [0.23–0.4] mm for the merged segmentation and an average DSC of 0.77 [0.73–0.81] and MBD of 0.6 [0.44–0.74] mm for individual TV leaflet segmentation. The addition of commissural landmarks improved individual leaflet segmentation accuracy to an MBD of 0.38 [0.3–0.46] mm. FCN-based segmentation of the tricuspid valve from transthoracic 3DE is feasible and accurate. The addition of an annular curve and commissural landmarks improved the quality of the segmentations with MBD and DSC within the range of human inter-user variability. Fast and accurate FCN-based segmentation of the tricuspid valve in HLHS may enable rapid modeling and quantification, which in the future may inform surgical planning. We are now working to deploy this network for public use.