Table_2_Myco-Synergism Boosts Herbivory-Induced Maize Defense by Triggering Antioxidants and Phytohormone Signaling.XLSX
Biocontrol strategies are the best possible and eco-friendly solution to develop resistance against O furnacalis and improve the maize yield. However, the knowledge about underlying molecular mechanisms, metabolic shifts, and hormonal signaling is limited.Methods
Here, we used an axenic and a consortium of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana OFDH1-5 and a pathogen-antagonistic Trichoderma asperellum GDFS1009 in maize and observed that consortium applications resulted in higher chlorophyll contents and antioxidants activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), proline, protease, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)] with a decrease in O. furnacalis survival. We performed a comprehensive transcriptome and an untargeted metabolome profiling for the first time at a vegetative stage in fungal inoculated maize leaves at 0-, 12-, 24-, 48-, and 72-h post insect infestation.Results
The consortium of B. bassiana and T. asperellum leads to 80–95% of O. furnacalis mortality. A total of 13,156 differentially expressed genes were used for weighted gene coexpression network analysis. We identified the six significant modules containing thirteen candidate genes [protein kinase (GRMZM2G025459), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (GRMZM5G864319), thioredoxin gene (GRMZM2G091481), glutathione S-transferase (GRMZM2G116273), patatin-like phospholipase gene (GRMZM2G154523), cytochrome P450 (GRMZM2G139874), protease inhibitor (GRMZM2G004466), (AC233926.1_FG002), chitinase (GRMZM2G453805), defensin (GRMZM2G392863), peroxidase (GRMZM2G144153), GDSL- like lipase (AC212068.4_FG005), and Beta-glucosidase (GRMZM2G031660)], which are not previously reported that are highly correlated with Jasmonic acid - Ethylene (JA-ET) signaling pathway and antioxidants. We detected a total of 130 negative and 491 positive metabolomic features using a ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). Intramodular significance and real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) expressions showed that these genes are the true candidate genes. Consortium treated maize had higher jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and ethylene (ET) levels.Conclusion
Our results provide insights into the genetics, biochemicals, and metabolic diversity and are useful for future biocontrol strategies against ACB attacks.