Table_2_Modulation of the Wheat Seed-Borne Bacterial Community by Herbaspirillum seropedicae RAM10 and Its Potential Effects for Tryptophan Metabolism in the Root Endosphere.DOCX
Plants and their associated microbiota share ecological and evolutionary traits that are considered to be inseparably woven. Their coexistence foresees the use of similar metabolic pathways, leading to the generation of molecules that can cross-regulate each other’s metabolism and ultimately influence plant phenotype. However, the extent to which the microbiota contributes to the overall plant metabolic landscape remains largely unexplored. Due to their early presence in the seed, seed-borne endophytic bacteria can intimately colonize the plant’s endosphere while conferring a series of phytobeneficial services to their host. Understanding the dynamics of these endophytic communities is a crucial step toward the formulation of microbial inoculants that can modulate the functionality of the plant-associated microbiota for improved plant fitness. In this work, wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots non-inoculated and inoculated with the bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain RAM10 were analyzed to explore the impact of inoculant–endophyte–wheat interrelationships on the regulation of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism in the endosphere environment. Root inoculation with H. seropedicae led to phylum-specific changes in the cultivable seed-borne endophytic community. This modulation shifted the metabolic potential of the community in light of its capacity to modulate the levels of key Trp-related metabolites involved in both indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis and in the kynurenine pathway. Our results support a mode of action of H. seropedicae relying on a shift in both the composition and functionality of the seed-borne endophytic community, which may govern important processes such as root growth. We finally provide a conceptual framework illustrating that interactions among roots, inoculants, and seed-borne endophytes are critical to fine-tuning the levels of IAA in the endosphere. Understanding the outcomes of these interactions is a crucial step toward the formulation of microbial inoculants based on their joint action with seed-borne endophytic communities to promote crop growth and health in a sustainable manner.