Table_2_Metagenomic Analyses of Microbial and Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes in the Rumen of Holstein Cows Fed Different Forage-to-Concentrate Ratios.docx
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of different forage-to-concentrate ratios and sampling times on the genetic diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and the taxonomic profile of rumen microbial communities in dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were arbitrarily divided into groups fed high-forage (HF) or low-forage (LF) diets. The results showed that, for glycoside hydrolase (GH) families, there were greater differences based on dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio than sampling time. The HF treatment group at 4 h after feeding (AF4h) had the most microbial diversity. Genes that encode GHs had the highest number of CAZymes, and accounted for 57.33% and 56.48% of all CAZymes in the HF and LF treatments, respectively. The majority of GH family genes encode oligosaccharide-degrading enzymes, and GH2, GH3, and GH43 were synthesized by a variety of different genera. Notably, we found that GH3 was higher in HF than LF diet samples, and mainly produced by Prevotella, Bacteroides, and unclassified reads. Most predicted cellulase enzymes were encoded by GH5 (the BF0h group under HF treatment was highest) and GH95 (the BF0h group under LF treatment was highest), and were primarily derived from Bacteroides, Butyrivibrio, and Fibrobacter. Approximately 67.5% (GH28) and 65.5% (GH53) of the putative hemicellulases in LF and HF treatments, respectively. GH28 under LF treatment was more abundant than under HF treatment, and was mainly produced by Ruminococcus, Prevotella, and Bacteroides. This study revealed that HF-fed cows had increased microbial diversity of CAZyme producers, which encode enzymes that efficiently degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides in the cow rumen.