Table_2_Mechanism-Based Biomarker Prediction for Low-Grade Inflammation in Liver and Adipose Tissue.pdf
Metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have a large impact on global health, especially in industrialized countries. Tissue-specific chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to complications in metabolic disorders. To support therapeutic approaches to these complications, it is crucial to gain a deeper understanding of the inflammatory dynamics and to monitor them on the individual level. To this end, blood-based biomarkers reflecting the tissue-specific inflammatory dynamics would be of great value. Here, we describe an in silico approach to select candidate biomarkers for tissue-specific inflammation by using a priori mechanistic knowledge from pathways and tissue-derived molecules. The workflow resulted in a list of candidate markers, in part consisting of literature confirmed biomarkers as well as a set of novel, more innovative biomarkers that reflect inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue. The first step of biomarker verification was on murine tissue gene-level by inducing hepatic inflammation and adipose tissue inflammation through a high-fat diet. Our data showed that in silico predicted hepatic markers had a strong correlation to hepatic inflammation in the absence of a relation to adipose tissue inflammation, while others had a strong correlation to adipose tissue inflammation in the absence of a relation to liver inflammation. Secondly, we evaluated the human translational value by performing a curation step in the literature using studies that describe the regulation of the markers in human, which identified 9 hepatic (such as Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin, and Interleukin 18 Binding Protein) and 2 adipose (Resistin and MMP-9) inflammatory biomarkers at the highest level of confirmation. Here, we identified and pre-clinically verified a set of in silico predicted biomarkers for liver and adipose tissue inflammation which can be of great value to study future development of therapeutic/lifestyle interventions to combat metabolic inflammatory complications.