Table_2_Maize (Zea mays L.) Nucleoskeletal Proteins Regulate Nuclear Envelope Remodeling and Function in Stomatal Complex Development and Pollen Viability.XLSX
In eukaryotes, the nuclear envelope (NE) encloses chromatin and separates it from the rest of the cell. The Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex physically bridges across the NE, linking nuclear and cytoplasmic components. In plants, these LINC complexes are beginning to be ascribed roles in cellular and nuclear functions, including chromatin organization, regulation of nuclei shape and movement, and cell division. Homologs of core LINC components, KASH and SUN proteins, have previously been identified in maize. Here, we characterized the presumed LINC-associated maize nucleoskeletal proteins NCH1 and NCH2, homologous to members of the plant NMCP/CRWN family, and MKAKU41, homologous to AtKAKU4. All three proteins localized to the nuclear periphery when transiently and heterologously expressed as fluorescent protein fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana. Overexpression of MKAKU41 caused dramatic changes in the organization of the nuclear periphery, including nuclear invaginations that stained positive for non-nucleoplasmic markers of the inner and outer NE membranes, and the ER. The severity of these invaginations was altered by changes in LINC connections and the actin cytoskeleton. In maize, MKAKU41 appeared to share genetic functions with other LINC components, including control of nuclei shape, stomatal complex development, and pollen viability. Overall, our data show that NCH1, NCH2, and MKAKU41 have characteristic properties of LINC-associated plant nucleoskeletal proteins, including interactions with NE components suggestive of functions at the nuclear periphery that impact the overall nuclear architecture.