Table_2_Isolate Specific Cold Response of Yersinia enterocolitica in Transcriptional, Proteomic, and Membrane Physiological Changes.docx
Yersinia enterocolitica, a zoonotic foodborne pathogen, is able to withstand low temperatures. This psychrotrophic ability allows it to multiply in food stored in refrigerators. However, little is known about the Y. enterocolitica cold response. In this study, isolate-specific behavior at 4°C was demonstrated and the cold response was investigated by examining changes in phenotype, gene expression, and the proteome. Altered expression of cold-responsive genes showed that the ability to survive at low temperature depends on the capacity to acclimate and adapt to cold stress. This cold acclimation at the transcriptional level involves the transient induction and effective repression of cold-shock protein (Csp) genes. Moreover, the resumption of expression of genes encoding other non-Csp is essential during prolonged adaptation. Based on proteomic analyses, the predominant functional categories of cold-responsive proteins are associated with protein synthesis, cell membrane structure, and cell motility. In addition, changes in membrane fluidity and motility were shown to be important in the cold response of Y. enterocolitica. Isolate-specific differences in the transcription of membrane fluidity- and motility-related genes provided evidence to classify strains within a spectrum of cold response. The combination of different approaches has permitted the systematic description of the Y. enterocolitica cold response and gives a better understanding of the physiological processes underlying this phenomenon.