Table_2_Hypoxia-Related Gene FUT11 Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Progression by Maintaining the Stability of PDK1.xlsx
Hypoxia is associated with the development of pancreatic cancer (PC). However, genes associated with hypoxia response and their regulatory mechanism in PC cells were unclear. The current study aims to investigate the role of the hypoxia associated gene fucosyltransferase 11 (FUT11) in the progression of PC.Methods
In the preliminary study, bioinformatics analysis predicted FUT11 as a key hypoxia associated gene in PC. The expression of FUT11 in PC was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effects of FUT11 on PC cells proliferation and migration under normoxia and hypoxia were evaluated using Cell Counting Kit 8, 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine (EDU) assay, colony formation assay and transwell assay. The effects of FUT11 in vivo was examined in mouse tumor models of liver metastasis and subcutaneous xenograft. Furthermore, Western blot, luciferase assay and immunoprecipitation were performed to explore the regulatory relationship among FUT11, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) in PC.Results
FUT11 was markedly increased of PC cells with hypoxia, upregulated in the PC clinical tissues, and predicted a poor outcome of PC patients. Inhibition of FUT11 reduced PC cell growth and migratory ability of PC cells under normoxia and hypoxia conditions in vitro, and growth and tumor cell metastasis in vivo. FUT11 bound to PDK1 and regulated the expression PDK1 under normoxia and hypoxia. FUT11 interacted with PDK1 and decreased the ubiquitination of PDK1, lead to the activation of AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. FUT11 knockdown significantly increased the degradation of PDK1 under hypoxia, while treatment with MG132 can relieve the degradation of PDK1 induced by FUT11 knockdown. Overexpression of PDK1 in PC cells under hypoxia conditions reversed the suppressive impacts of FUT11 knockdown on PC cell growth and migration. In addition, HIF1α bound to the promoter of FUT11 and increased its expression, as well as co-expressed with FUT11 in PC tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of FUT11 partially rescued the suppressive effects of HIF1α knockdown on PC cell growth and migration in hypoxia condition.Conclusion
Our data implicate that hypoxia-induced FUT11 contributes to proliferation and metastasis of PC by maintaining the stability of PDK1, thus mediating activation of AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and suggest that FUT11 could be a novel and effective target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.