Table_2_How Many Tree Species of Birch Are in Alaska? Implications for Wetland Designations.DOCX
Wetland areas are critical habitats, especially in northern regions of North America. Wetland classifications are based on several factors, including the presence of certain plant species and assemblages of species, of which trees play a significant role. Here we examined wetland species of birch (Betula) in North America, with a focus on Alaska, and the use of birche tree species in wetland delineation. We sampled over 200 trees from sites, including Alaska, Alberta, Minnesota, and New Hampshire. We used genetic data from over 3000 loci detected by restriction site associated DNA analysis. We used an indirect estimate of ploidy based on allelic ratios and we also examined population genetic structure. We find that inferred ploidy is strongly associated with genetic groupings. We find two main distinct groups; one found throughout most of Alaska, extending into Alberta. This group is probably attributable to Betula kenaica, Betula neoalaskana, or both. This group has a diploid genetic pattern although this could easily be a function of allopolyploidy. The second major genetic group appears to extend from Eastern North America into parts of southeastern Alaska. This group represents Betula papyrifera, and is not diploid based on allelic ratios. Published chromosome counts indicate pentaploidy. Because B. papyrifera is the only one of the above species that is distinctly associated with wetland habitats, our findings indicate that tree species of birch found in most parts of Alaska are not reliable indicators of wetland habitats. These results help to support stronger wetland ratings assigned to the tree species of birch for delineation purposes.