Table_2_Exploring With Transcriptomic Approaches the Underlying Mechanisms of an Essential Oil-Based Phytogenic in the Small Intestine and Liver of Pi.xlsx (22.46 kB)
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Table_2_Exploring With Transcriptomic Approaches the Underlying Mechanisms of an Essential Oil-Based Phytogenic in the Small Intestine and Liver of Pigs.xlsx

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posted on 11.08.2021, 16:42 authored by Jeremy Le Coz, Suzana Ilic, Silvia Fibi-Smetana, Gerd Schatzmayr, Mathias Zaunschirm, Bertrand Grenier

Phytogenics are plant-based feed additives utilized in animal nutrition to support animal growth and health. Worldwide restrictions and bans on the use of antibiotic growth promoters resulted in an increased demand for in-feed alternatives including phytogenics. However, several challenges remain for technology readiness in animal industry, especially regarding the standardization of the ingredients as well as our knowledge on the cellular mechanisms underlying their biological effects. In the present study, 32 weaned piglets were allocated for 28 days to four experimental diets, a control diet, a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) diet, or the same two diets but with the addition of oxidized oil (OO) at 10%. The last two diets aimed at evaluating the antioxidant properties of PFA. At the end of the trial, the ileum and the liver of the pigs were sampled, and RNA were isolated for profiling their transcriptome via RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In the ileum, the gene set enrichment analysis showed that the activity of several immune pathways (NF-kB, interferon α/β, antimicrobial peptide, and collagen pathways) was reduced in piglets fed PFA compared to the control piglets. As expected, the addition of OO induced strong effects on the liver transcriptome and most likely accounted for the significant growth impairment. The likelihood ratio test across the four diets revealed a global response driven by the oxidative stress challenge with hundreds of genes associated with fatty acid β-oxidation and peroxisome in the liver. The expression levels of those genes in the piglets fed OO+PFA were much less affected by the challenge. Collectively, the effects seen at day 28 suggest that substances in the PFA formulation provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The use of RNA-Seq in animal nutrition allows exploring and deciphering novel mechanisms of natural growth promoters.

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