Table_2_Experimental Evolution Expands the Breadth of Adaptation to an Environmental Gradient Correlated With Genome Reduction.XLSX
Whether and how adaptive evolution adjusts the breadth of adaptation in coordination with the genome are essential issues for connecting evolution with ecology. To address these questions, experimental evolution in five Escherichia coli strains carrying either the wild-type genome or a reduced genome was performed in a defined minimal medium (C0). The ancestral and evolved populations were subsequently subjected to fitness and chemical niche analyses across an environmental gradient with 29 combinations of eight chemical components of the minimal medium. The results showed that adaptation was achieved not only specific to the evolutionary condition (C0), but also generally, to the environmental gradient; that is, the breadth of adaptation to the eight chemical niches was expanded. The magnitudes of the adaptive improvement and the breadth increase were both correlated with genome reduction and were highly significant in two out of eight niches (i.e., glucose and sulfate). The direct adaptation-induced correlated adaptation to the environmental gradient was determined by only a few genome mutations. An additive increase in fitness associated with the stepwise fixation of mutations was consistently observed in the reduced genomes. In summary, this preliminary survey demonstrated that evolution finely tuned the breadth of adaptation correlated with genome reduction.