Table_2_Epidemiological characteristics, virulence potential, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and phylogenetic analysis of Aeromonas caviae isolated from extra-intestinal infections.xlsx
Aeromonas caviae (A. caviae) is one of the major etiological agents in human intestinal infections reported to be associated with a broad spectrum of extra-intestinal infections with increasing incidence over recent years. Although previous studies have established its significance as a causative agent of both bloodstream and gastrointestinal infections, the characteristics of A. caviae that cause extra-intestinal infections remain unilluminated.In this single-center retrospective study, we investigated epidemiological characteristics, antimicrobial resistance genes and phenotypes, virulence genes, and phyloevolution of 47 clinical A. caviae isolated from patients with extra-intestinal infections from 2017 to 2020.Methods
A. caviae strains were identified by biochemical tests and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS), ultimately confirmed to species level by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes were identified using the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) and the virulence factor database (VFDB), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of 47 clinical strains was performed by combining with 521 A. caviae strains from NCBI database.Results
A. caviae was an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, especially those with underlying hepatobiliary diseases and malignancies. 19 out of 47 isolates were identified as multidrug resistance (MDR) strains. Piperacillin-tazobactam, levofloxacin, gentamicin, amikacin with a resistance rate of less than 10% remained as options to treat extra-intestinal infections. 24 out of 47 isolates exhibited non-susceptibility to cephalosporins and cephamycins, all of which carried β-lactamase gene, including blaMOX, blaPER-3, blaOXA, blaNDM, and blaCphA. Most stains (98%, 46/47) carried at least one of the virulence genes, but extra-intestinal infections had a low mortality rate. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the risk of nosocomial transmission but revealed no outbreak. However, the emergence of MDR and β-lactamase resistance genes in extra-intestinal isolates of A. caviae is becoming an increasing risk to public health and requires attention.Conclusions
This study strengthen our understanding of A.caviae isolated from extra-intestinal infections. It may contribute to the management of extra-intestinal infections as well as the prevention and control of drug resistance.