Table_2_Determining Sex-Based Differences in Inflammatory Response in an Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Model.docx (16.96 kB)
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Table_2_Determining Sex-Based Differences in Inflammatory Response in an Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Model.docx

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posted on 09.02.2022, 05:04 by Michael C. Scott, Karthik S. Prabhakara, Andrew J. Walters, Scott D. Olson, Charles S. Cox
Introduction

Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of injury-related death and morbidity. Multiple clinical and pre-clinical studies have reported various results regarding sex-based differences in TBI. Our accepted rodent model of traumatic brain injury was used to identify sex-based differences in the pathological features of TBI.

Methods

Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either controlled-cortical impact (CCI) or sham injury; brain tissue was harvested at different time intervals depending on the specific study. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) analysis was performed using infrared imaging to measure fluorescence dye extravasation. Microglia and splenocytes were characterized with traditional flow cytometry; microglia markers such as CD45, P2Y12, CD32, and CD163 were analyzed with t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE). Flow cytometry was used to study tissue cytokine levels, and supplemented with ELISAs of TNF-⍺, IL-17, and IL-1β of the ipsilateral hemisphere tissue.

Results

CCI groups of both sexes recorded a higher BBB permeability at 72 hours post-injury than their respective sham groups. There was significant difference in the integrated density value of BBB permeability between the male CCI group and the female CCI group (female CCI mean = 3.08 x 108 ± 2.83 x 107, male CCI mean = 2.20 x 108 ± 4.05 x 106, p = 0.0210), but otherwise no differences were observed. Traditional flow cytometry did not distinguish any sex-based difference in regards to splenocyte cell population after CCI. t-SNE did not reveal any significant difference between the male and female injury groups in the activation of microglia. Cytokine analysis after injury by flow cytometry and ELISA was limited in differences at the time point of 6 hours post-injury.

Conclusion

In our rodent model of traumatic brain injury, sex-based differences in pathology and neuroinflammation at specified time points are limited, and only noted in one specific analysis of BBB permeability.

History

References