Table_2_Comprehensive Analysis of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment Landscape in Glioblastoma Reveals Tumor Heterogeneity and Implications for Prognos.docx (3.85 MB)
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Table_2_Comprehensive Analysis of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment Landscape in Glioblastoma Reveals Tumor Heterogeneity and Implications for Prognosis and Immunotherapy.docx

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posted on 02.03.2022, 04:25 by Rongrong Zhao, Ziwen Pan, Boyan Li, Shulin Zhao, Shouji Zhang, Yanhua Qi, Jiawei Qiu, Zijie Gao, Yang Fan, Qindong Guo, Wei Qiu, Shaobo Wang, Qingtong Wang, Ping Zhang, Xing Guo, Lin Deng, Hao Xue, Gang Li
Background

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal brain tumor with no effective treatment. The specific GBM tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) may contribute to resistance to immunotherapy, a tumor therapy with great potential. Thus, an in-depth understanding of the characteristics of tumor-infiltrating immune cells is essential for exploring biomarkers in GBM pathogenesis and immunotherapy.

Methods

We estimated the relative abundances of 25 immune cell types in 796 GBM samples using single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA). Unsupervised clustering was used to identify different GBM-associated TIME immune cell infiltration (GTMEI) patterns. The GTMEIscore system was constructed with principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the immune infiltration pattern of individual tumors.

Results

We revealed three distinct GTMEI patterns with different clinical outcomes and modulated biological pathways. We developed a scoring system (GTMEIscore) to determine the immune infiltration pattern of individual tumors. We comprehensively analyzed the genomic characteristics, molecular subtypes and clinicopathological features as well as proteomic, phosphoproteomic, acetylomic, lipidomic and metabolomic properties associated with the GTMEIscore and revealed many novel dysregulated pathways and precise targets in GBM. Moreover, the GTMEIscore accurately quantified the immune status of many other cancer types. Clinically, the GTMEIscore was found to have significant potential therapeutic value for chemotherapy/radiotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy and targeted therapy.

Conclusions

For the first time, we employed a multilevel and multiplatform strategy to construct a multidimensional molecular map of tumors with different immune infiltration patterns. These results may provide theoretical basises for identifying more effective predictive biomarkers and developing more effective drug combination strategies or novel immunotherapeutic agents for GBM.

History

References