Table_2_Comparative Genomics of Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Strains From Brazil Reveals Polyclonal Dissemination and Selective Exchange of Mobile Genetic Elements Associated With Resistance Genes.XLSX
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen infecting immunocompromised patients and has gained attention worldwide due to its increased antimicrobial resistance. Here, we report a comparative whole-genome sequencing and analysis coupled with an assessment of antibiotic resistance of 46 Acinetobacter strains (45 A. baumannii plus one Acinetobacter nosocomialis) originated from five hospitals from the city of Recife, Brazil, between 2010 and 2014. An average of 3,809 genes were identified per genome, although only 2,006 genes were single copy orthologs or core genes conserved across all sequenced strains, with an average of 42 new genes found per strain. We evaluated genetic distance through a phylogenetic analysis and MLST as well as the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence markers and mobile genetic elements (MGE). The phylogenetic analysis recovered distinct monophyletic A. baumannii groups corresponding to five known (ST1, ST15, ST25, ST79, and ST113) and one novel ST (ST881, related to ST1). A large number of ST specific genes were found, with the ST79 strains having the largest number of genes in common that were missing from the other STs. Multiple genes associated with resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics were found. Some of those were clearly mapped to defined MGEs and an analysis of those revealed known elements as well as a novel Tn7-Tn3 transposon with a clear ST specific distribution. An association of selected resistance/virulence markers with specific STs was indeed observed, as well as the recent spread of the OXA-253 carbapenemase encoding gene. Virulence genes associated with the synthesis of the capsular antigens were noticeably more variable in the ST113 and ST79 strains. Indeed, several resistance and virulence genes were common to the ST79 and ST113 strains only, despite a greater genetic distance between them, suggesting common means of genetic exchange. Our comparative analysis reveals the spread of multiple STs and the genomic plasticity of A. baumannii from different hospitals in a single metropolitan area. It also highlights differences in the spread of resistance markers and other MGEs between the investigated STs, impacting on the monitoring and treatment of Acinetobacter in the ongoing and future outbreaks.