Table_2_Combining autophagy and immune characterizations to predict prognosis and therapeutic response in lung adenocarcinoma.xlsx (1021.24 kB)
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Table_2_Combining autophagy and immune characterizations to predict prognosis and therapeutic response in lung adenocarcinoma.xlsx

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posted on 2022-09-13, 04:44 authored by Qiaxuan Li, Daipeng Xie, Lintong Yao, Hongrui Qiu, Peimeng You, Jialong Deng, Congsen Li, Weijie Zhan, Maotao Weng, Shaowei Wu, Fasheng Li, Yubo Zhou, Fanjun Zeng, Yong Zheng, Haiyu Zhou

Autophagy, a key regulator of programmed cell death, is critical for maintaining the stability of the intracellular environment. Increasing evidence has revealed the clinical importance of interactions between autophagy and immune status in lung adenocarcinoma. The present study evaluated the potential of autophagy-immune-derived biomarkers to predict prognosis and therapeutic response in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.


Patients from the GSE72094 dataset were randomized 7:3 to a training set and an internal validation set. Three independent cohorts, TCGA, GSE31210, and GSE37745, were used for external verification. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering based on autophagy- and immune-associated genes was used to identify autophagy- and immune-associated molecular patterns, respectively. Significantly prognostic autophagy-immune genes were identified by LASSO analysis and by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Differences in tumor immune microenvironments, functional pathways, and potential therapeutic responses were investigated to differentiate high-risk and low-risk groups.


High autophagy status and high immune status were associated with improved overall survival. Autophagy and immune subtypes were merged into a two-dimensional index to characterize the combined prognostic classifier, with 535 genes defined as autophagy-immune-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Four genes (C4BPA, CD300LG, CD96, and S100P) were identified to construct an autophagy-immune-related prognostic risk model. Survival and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses showed that this model was significantly prognostic of survival. Patterns of autophagy and immune genes differed in low- and high-risk patients. Enrichment of most immune infiltrating cells was greater, and the expression of crucial immune checkpoint molecules was higher, in the low-risk group. TIDE and immunotherapy clinical cohort analysis predicted that the low-risk group had more potential responders to immunotherapy. GO, KEGG, and GSEA function analysis identified immune- and autophagy-related pathways. Autophagy inducers were observed in patients in the low-risk group, whereas the high-risk group was sensitive to autophagy inhibitors. The expression of the four genes was assessed in clinical specimens and cell lines.


The autophagy-immune-based gene signature represents a promising tool for risk stratification in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, guiding individualized targeted therapy or immunotherapy.