Table_2_Clinical and Immunological Profile of Anti-factor H Antibody Associated Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Nationwide Database.DOCX (13.5 kB)

Table_2_Clinical and Immunological Profile of Anti-factor H Antibody Associated Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Nationwide Database.DOCX

Download (13.5 kB)
posted on 07.06.2019 by Mamta Puraswani, Priyanka Khandelwal, Himanshi Saini, Savita Saini, Bahadur Singh Gurjar, Aditi Sinha, Rajashri Pramod Shende, Tushar Kanti Maiti, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Uma Kanga, Uma Ali, Indira Agarwal, Kanav Anand, Narayan Prasad, Padmaraj Rajendran, Rajiv Sinha, Anil Vasudevan, Anita Saxena, Sanjay Agarwal, Pankaj Hari, Arvind Sahu, Satyajit Rath, Arvind Bagga

Background: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), is characterized by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. Autoantibodies to factor H (FH), a chief regulator of this pathway, account for a distinct subgroup. While high anti-FH titers predict relapse, they do not correlate well with disease activity and their functional characterization is required.

Methods: Of 781 patients <18-year-old of aHUS in the nationwide database from 2007 to 2018, 436 (55.8%) had anti-FH antibodies. Clinical features and outcome of patients managed in the last 6-year (n = 317) were compared to before (n = 119). In plasma samples of 44 patients, levels of serial circulating FH immune complexes (CIC), free FH, soluble terminal complement complex (sC5b-9), sheep red blood cell (SRBC) lysis and epitope specificity (n = 8) were examined. Functional renal reserve, ambulatory hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and proteinuria were evaluated in a subset.

Results: Patients presented with markedly elevated anti-FH titers (10,633.2 ± 998.5 AU/ml). Management varied by center, comprising plasma exchange (PEX; 77.5%) and immunosuppression (73.9%). Patients managed in the last 6-year showed better renal survival at mean 28.5 ± 27.3 months (log rank P = 0.022). Mean anti-FH titers stayed 700–1,164 AU/ml during prolonged follow-up, correlating with CIC. Patients with relapse had lower free-FH during remission [Generalized estimating equations (GEE), P = 0.001]; anti-FH levels ≥1,330 AU/ml and free FH ≤440 mg/l predicted relapse (hazards ratio, HR 6.3; P = 0.018). Epitope specificity was similar during onset, remission and relapse. Antibody titer ≥8,000 AU/ml (HR 2.23; P = 0.024), time to PEX ≥14 days (HR 2.09; P = 0.071) and PEX for <14 days (HR 2.60; P = 0.017) predicted adverse renal outcomes. Combined PEX and immunosuppression improved long-term outcomes (HR 0.37; P = 0.026); maintenance therapy reduced risk of relapses (HR 0.11; P < 0.001). At 4.4±2.5 year, median renal reserve was 15.9%; severe ambulatory, masked and pre-hypertension were found in 38, 30, and 18%, respectively. Proteinuria and LVH occurred in 58 and 28% patients, respectively.

Conclusion: Prompt recognition and therapy with PEX and immunosuppression, is associated with satisfactory outcomes. Free-FH predicts early relapses in patients with high anti-FH titers. A significant proportion of impaired functional reserve, ambulatory hypertension, proteinuria and LVH highlight the need for vigilant long-term follow-up.