Table_2_Alterations in Oral–Nasal–Pharyngeal Microbiota and Salivary Proteins in Mouth-Breathing Children.XLSX (1.91 MB)

Table_2_Alterations in Oral–Nasal–Pharyngeal Microbiota and Salivary Proteins in Mouth-Breathing Children.XLSX

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posted on 09.10.2020 by Cancan Fan, Lihong Guo, Haijing Gu, Yongbiao Huo, Huancai Lin

Mouth breathing induces a series of diseases, while the influence on microbiota of oral cavity and salivary proteins remains unknown. In this study, for the first time, profiles of oral–nasal–pharyngeal microbiota among mouth-breathing children (MB group, n = 10) were compared with paired nose-breathing children (NB group, n = 10) using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (V3–V4 region) high-throughput sequencing. The differentially expressed salivary proteins were revealed using label-free quantification (LFQ) method, and their associations with bacterial abundance were measured by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The overall bacterial profiles differed between the two groups, and the differences were related to the duration of mouth breathing. The diversity of oral–pharyngeal microbiota was significantly higher, and the nasal–pharyngeal species tended to be consistent (unweighted UniFrac, p = 0.38) in the MB group. Opportunistic pathogens were higher in relative abundance as follows: Acinetobacter in the anterior supragingival plaque, Neisseria in unstimulated saliva, Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pharynx, and Stenotrophomonas in the nostrils. The expression level of oxidative-stress-related salivary proteins (lactoylglutathione lyase and peroxiredoxin-5) were upregulated, while immune-related proteins (integrin alpha-M and proteasome subunit alpha type-1) were downregulated in MB group. The differentially expressed proteins were associated with specific bacteria, indicating their potentials as candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis, putatively early intervention, and therapeutic target of mouth breathing. This study showed that mouth breathing influences the oral–nasal–pharyngeal microbiota and enriches certain pathogens, accompanied with the alterations in the salivary environment. Further research on the pathological mechanisms and dynamic changes in longitudinal studies are warranted.

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