Table_1_miR-335 Targets LRRK2 and Mitigates Inflammation in Parkinson’s Disease.DOCX (3.37 MB)
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Table_1_miR-335 Targets LRRK2 and Mitigates Inflammation in Parkinson’s Disease.DOCX

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posted on 15.06.2021, 05:36 authored by Sara R. Oliveira, Pedro A. Dionísio, Maria M. Gaspar, Leonor Correia Guedes, Miguel Coelho, Mário M. Rosa, Joaquim J. Ferreira, Joana D. Amaral, Cecília M. P. Rodrigues

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is mainly driven by dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta accompanied by chronic neuroinflammation. Despite being mainly sporadic, approximately 10% of all cases are defined as heritable forms of PD, with mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase (LRRK2) gene being the most frequent known cause of familial PD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), including miR-335, are frequently deregulated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD. Here, we aimed to dissect the protective role of miR-335 during inflammation and/or neurodegenerative events in experimental models of PD. Our results showed that miR-335 is significantly downregulated in different PD-mimicking conditions, including BV2 microglia cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or overexpressing wild-type LRRK2. Importantly, these results were confirmed in serum of mice injected with 1-methyl-1-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydripyridine hydrochloride (MPTP), and further validated in patients with idiopathic PD (iPD) and those harboring mutations in LRRK2 (LRRK2-PD), thus corroborating potential clinical relevance. Mechanistically, miR-335 directly targeted LRRK2 mRNA. In the BV2 and N9 microglia cell lines, miR-335 strongly counteracted LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression, and downregulated receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and RIP3, two important players of necroptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. Further, miR-335 inhibited LPS-mediated ERK1/2 activation. LRRK2-Wt-induced proinflammatory gene expression was also significantly reduced by miR-335 overexpression. Finally, in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, miR-335 decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory genes triggered by α-synuclein. In conclusion, we revealed novel roles for miR-335 in both microglia and neuronal cells that strongly halt the effects of classical inflammatory stimuli or LRRK2-Wt overexpression, thus attenuating chronic neuroinflammation.