Table_1_iTRAQ-Based Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites Provides Insight Into the Role of Phosphorylation for its Invasion and Egress.xlsx
The invasion and egress are two key steps in lytic cycle vital to the propagation of Toxoplasma gondii infection, and phosphorylation is believed to play important roles in these processes. However, the phosphoproteome of T. gondii at these two stages has not been characterized. In this study, we profiled the phosphoproteome of tachyzoites at the stages of “just invading” (JI) and “prior to egress” (PE) based on iTRAQ quantitative analysis, in which a total of 46 phosphopeptides, 42 phosphorylation sites, and 38 phosphoproteins were detected. In the comparison of PE vs. JI, 10 phosphoproteins were detected with their phosphorylation level significantly changed, and four of them were demonstrated to be significantly down-regulated at the transcriptional level. Bioinformatic analysis of these identified phosphoproteins suggested that phosphorylation-mediated modulation of protein function was employed to regulate the pathway of toxoplasmosis and metabolism and cellular processes correlated with tachyzoite’s binding, location, and metabolism, and thus play vital roles in the parasite lytic cycle. Moreover, cytoskeletal network (CN)-associated Inner Membrane Complex (IMC1, IMC4, IMC6 and IMC12), Intravascular Network (IVN)-related GRAs (GRA2, GRA3, GRA7 and GRA12), and Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane (PVM)-localized ROP5 were shown to be enriched at the central nodes in the protein interaction network generated by bioinformatic analysis, in which the phosphorylation level of IMC4, GRA2, GRA3, and GRA12 were found to be significantly regulated. This study revealed the main cellular processes and key phosphoproteins crucial for the invasion and egress of T. gondii, which will provide new insights into the developmental biology of T. gondii in vitro and contribute to the understanding of pathogen-host interaction from the parasite perspective.