Table_1_Whole Genome Sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis Isolated From Livestock in the United States, 1989–2018.xlsx (30.19 kB)

Table_1_Whole Genome Sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis Isolated From Livestock in the United States, 1989–2018.xlsx

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posted on 2018-10-30, 13:18 authored by Kathy Orloski, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tod Stuber, Bill Hench, Mark Schoenbaum

The United States official bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication program has utilized genotyping for Mycobacterium bovis isolates since 2000 and whole genome sequencing was implemented in 2013. The program has been highly successful, yet as bTB prevalence has reached historic lows, a small number of new bTB-affected cattle herds occur annually. Therefore, understanding the epidemiology of bTB transmission is critically important, in order to target limited resources for surveillance and achieve eradication. This evaluation described the diversity and epidemiology of M. bovis isolates identified in the USA livestock. Isolates from animals within the bTB endemic area of Michigan were excluded. Broad diversity was found among 1,248 isolates, collected from affected cattle and farmed cervids herds and fed cattle during 1989–2018. Nearly 70% of isolates from 109 herds/cases during 1999–2018 were European clonal complex 1 and 30% were European clonal complex 2. The sources of infection based on the herd investigation were known for 41% of herds/cases and 59% were not epidemiologically linked to another USA origin herd. Whole genome sequencing results were consistent with the investigation findings and previously unrecognized links between herds and cases were disclosed. For herds/cases with an unknown source of infection, WGS results suggested several possible sources, including undocumented cattle movement, imported cattle and humans. The use of WGS in new cases has reduced the time and costs associated with epidemiological investigations. Within herd SNP diversity was evaluated by examining 18 herds with 10 or more isolates sequenced. Forty percent of isolates had not diverged or accumulated any SNPs, and 86% of the isolates had accumulated 3 or fewer SNPs. The results of WGS does not support a bTB reservoir in USA cattle. The bTB eradication program appears to be highly effective as the majority of herds/cases in the USA are unique strains with limited herd to herd transmission.