Table_1_Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Somatic Mutations Associated With Mortality in Metastatic Clear Cell Kidney Carcinoma.XLSX (8.86 kB)

Table_1_Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Somatic Mutations Associated With Mortality in Metastatic Clear Cell Kidney Carcinoma.XLSX

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posted on 15.05.2019, 04:24 by Alejandro Mendoza-Alvarez, Beatriz Guillen-Guio, Adrian Baez-Ortega, Carolina Hernandez-Perez, Sita Lakhwani-Lakhwani, Maria-del-Carmen Maeso, Jose M. Lorenzo-Salazar, Manuel Morales, Carlos Flores

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is among the most aggressive histologic subtypes of kidney cancer, representing about 3% of all human cancers. Patients at stage IV have nearly 60% of mortality in 2–3 years after diagnosis. To date, most ccRCC studies have used DNA microarrays and targeted sequencing of a small set of well-established, commonly altered genes. An exception is the large multi-omics study of The Cancer Genome Atlas Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (TCGA-KIRC), which identified new ccRCC genes based on whole exome-sequencing (WES) data, and molecular prognostic signatures based on transcriptomics, epigenetics and proteomics data. Applying WES to simultaneously interrogate virtually all exons in the human genome for somatic variation, here we analyzed the burden of coding somatic mutations in metastatic ccRCC primary tumors, and its association with patient mortality from cancer, in patients who received VEGF receptor-targeting drugs as the first-line therapy. To this end, we sequenced the exomes of ten tumor–normal pairs of ccRCC patient tissues from primary biopsies at >100× mean depth and called somatic coding variation. Mutation burden analysis prioritized 138 genes linked to patient mortality. A gene set enrichment analysis evidenced strong statistical support for the abundance of genes involved in the development of kidney cancer (p = 2.31 × 10−9) and carcinoma (p = 1.22 × 10−5), with 49 genes having direct links with kidney cancer according to the published records. Two of these genes, SIPA1L2 and EIF3A, demonstrated independent associations with mortality in TCGA-KIRC project data. Besides, three mutational signatures were found to be operative in the tumor exomes, one of which (COSMIC signature 12) has not been previously reported in ccRCC. Selection analysis yielded no detectable evidence of overall positive or negative selection, with the exome-wide number of nonsynonymous substitutions per synonymous site reflecting largely neutral tumor evolution. Despite the limited sample size, our results provide evidence for candidate genes where somatic mutation burden is tentatively associated with patient mortality in metastatic ccRCC, offering new potential pharmacological targets and a basis for further validation studies.