Table_1_Vitellogenin and Vitellogenin-Like Genes in the Brown Planthopper.DOCX
Vitellogenin (Vg) is precursor of vitellin. Here, we identified a Vg (NlVg) and two Vg-likes (NlVg-like1 and NlVg-like2) in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Phylogenetic analyses showed that NlVg-like1 and NlVg-like2 are not clustered with the conventional insect Vgs associated with vitellogenesis. Temporo-spatial expression analyses showed that the NlVg and NlVg-like2 transcript levels increased significantly 24 h after emergence and were primarily expressed in female adults. However, NlVg-like1 was expressed during all stages, and in both genders. Tissue-specific analyses showed that all three genes were most highly expressed in the fat body. The injection of double-stranded RNA targeting NlVg showed that NlVg is essential not only for oocyte development but also for nymph development. The knockdown of NlVg-like1 in female adults resulted in failure to hatch or death before eggshell emergence in 18% of offspring embryos, suggesting that NlVg-like1 plays an important role during late embryogenesis. Approximately 65% of eggs laid by females that were treated with double-stranded RNA targeting NlVg-like2 failed to hatch, indicating that NlVg-like2 plays a role in nutrition absorption during oocyte, or embryonic development. Our results illustrate the structural and functional differences among the Vg and Vg-like genes and provide potential targets for RNA-interference-based insect pest management strategies.