Table_1_Various Diseases and Clinical Heterogeneity Are Associated With “Hot Cross Bun”.DOC (500 kB)
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Table_1_Various Diseases and Clinical Heterogeneity Are Associated With “Hot Cross Bun”.DOC

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posted on 20.11.2020, 04:56 by Shuzhen Zhu, Hualing Li, Bin Deng, Jialing Zheng, Zifeng Huang, Zihan Chang, Yanjun Huang, Zhibo Wen, Yanran Liang, Mengjue Yu, Ling-Ling Chan, Eng-King Tan, Qing Wang

Objective: To characterize the clinical phenotypes associated with the “hot cross bun” sign (HCBs) on MRI and identify correlations between neuroimaging and clinical characteristics.

Methods: Firstly, we screened a cohort of patients with HCBs from our radiologic information system (RIS) in our center. Secondly, we systematically reviewed published cases on HCBs and classified all these cases according to their etiologies. Finally, we characterized all HCBs cases in detail and classified the disease spectra and their clinical heterogeneity.

Results: Out of a total of 3,546 patients who were screened, we identified 40 patients with HCBs imaging sign in our cohort; systemic literature review identified 39 cases, which were associated with 14 diseases. In our cohort, inflammation [neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)] and toxicants [toxic encephalopathy caused by phenytoin sodium (TEPS)] were some of the underlying etiologies. Published cases by systemic literature review were linked to metabolic abnormality, degeneration, neoplasm, infection, and stroke. We demonstrated that the clinical phenotype, neuroimaging characteristics, and HCBs response to therapy varied greatly depending on underlying etiologies.

Conclusion: This is the first to report HCBs spectra in inflammatory and toxication diseases. Our study and systemic literature review demonstrated that the underpinning disease spectrum may be broader than previously recognized.